Gyeyangsanseong Museum is a newly-completed museum exhibiting the story, historical data, and artifacts about the ancient walls and fortress that existed in the past. The museum is tucked by the foothills of Gyeyangsan or Gyeyang Mountain in Gyeyang Disctrict, Incheon City, South Korea.
Korean fortresses are defences, walls, and forts constructed by Korean during the Three Kingdoms Period of Korea. Koreans developed their style of building such defences to protect themselves against foreign invaders.
Beginning with Goguryo Kingdom, Korea has been called “a country of fortresses as almost 2,400 mountain fortress sites have been discovered.
There are various kinds of Korean fortresses, including sanseong (mountain fortress). Other fortresses built aside from the mountains are called eupseong (city fortress), pyeongjiseong, gwanseong, jangseong, chaekseong, and more.
This section describes what a Korean fortress is like.
"Since the 19th century, a fortress became a key location for defending against the invasion of imperial powers. Soldiers inside Jeongjoksanseong Fortress defeated our French forces. Moreover, a fortress served as the base for the resistance movement of civil militias assembled in various parts of the country against the Japanese invasion.
Throughout much of its history, Korea has been invaded, influenced, and fought over by its larger neighbors. It has suffered about 900 invasions during its 2,000 years of recorded history.
In 1231, the Mongols began their invasions of Korea during seven major campaigns and 39 years of struggle, but were unable to conquer Korea.
Korean fortresses, including Gyeyangsanseong, were basically made of earth and stones. The walls were built by cutting the mountainsides or digging up and piling eath into a cast to bank it up.
Korean fortresses were invented by Goguryeo and spread to Baekje and Silla, and then inherited and further developed by Goryeo and then Joseon.
A Korean fortress was built to prevent invaders and preserving and sustaining the insiders of the fortress. Various structures were built to support the defence efforts and the lives of the soldiers and inhabitants of the fortress.
Mainly, the fortress structure included a moat, gate, fortress walls, square bastions, drainage system, and wells. Inside the walls were warehouses, barracks, and other facilities including reservoirs.
Also briefly featured at Gyeyangsanseong Museum are the world's popular walls and defences which still exist today. Some of them include the Acropolis (Greece), The Great Wall (China), Hadrian's Wall (Scotland), Sigiriya, Edinburgh Castle, Great Zimbabwe, Crac Des Chevaliers, Sacsayhua, and Neuschwasntein.
Gyeyangsanseong Fortress is one of Incheon area's fortresses built in the past. It is located at the foort of Gyeyang Mountain, which is 395 meters above sea level. The fortress was about 1,180 meters in circumference and its walls were about 7 meters tall.
Getting to Gyeyangsanseong Museum is easy and very much accessible to private and public vehicles. Local buses drop by right in front of the museum, while the Incheon Subway Station is about 5 minutes away from the museum.
Take Incheon Line 1 and get off at Gyesan Station. Come out from either Exit 5 or 6 and follow the signage. From Seoul of Incheon International Airport, take the Airport Line and get off at Gyeyang Station to transfer for Incheon Line 1. The last stop of this Incheon Line is Songdo.